Female sex offenders in maryland

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A sex offender registry is a system in various countries designed to allow government .. A November Maryland Court of Appeals ruling exempts homeless persons "Taking a Stand: Women Against Registry responds to our 14 News. The Maryland Department of Public Safety and Correctional Services maintains an online registry of convicted sex offenders that is provided as part of the state's​. Call the Maryland Sex Offender Alert Line at Register your phone number and zip code to receive a notification call when an offender moves​.

A sex offender registry is a system in various countries designed to allow government .. A November Maryland Court of Appeals ruling exempts homeless persons "Taking a Stand: Women Against Registry responds to our 14 News. Primary Residence: Pulasky Hwy, Apt/Unit# 28, Havre De Grace MD Address Change Date/23/ Temporary Residence:NA. Employment. In Maryland, people who are convicted of statutory rape and related crimes are required to register as sex offenders for at least 15 years. Registered offenders.

Primary Residence: Dorsey Hotel Rd, Apt/Unit# 1, Grantsville MD Address Change Date/03/ Temporary Residence:NA. Employment. A sex offender registry is a system in various countries designed to allow government .. A November Maryland Court of Appeals ruling exempts homeless persons "Taking a Stand: Women Against Registry responds to our 14 News. The Maryland Sex Offender Registry Website is one of many important tools that families can use to protect themselves, their children, and.






A sex offender registry is a system in various countries designed to allow government authorities to keep track of the activities of sex offendersincluding those who have completed their criminal sentences. In some jurisdictions, where sex offender registration can, registration is accompanied by residential address notification requirements.

In many jurisdictions, registered sex offenders are subject to additional restrictions, including on housing.

Those on parole or probation may be subject to restrictions that do not apply to other parolees or probationers. Sometimes, these include or have been proposed to include restrictions on being in the presence of underage persons under the age of offenfersliving in proximity to a school or day care center, owning toys or items targeted towards children, or using the Internet.

The United States is femals only country with a registry mxryland is publicly accessible; all other countries in the English-speaking world have sex offender registries only accessible by law enforcement.

In offense-based systems, registration is required sex a person is convicted or, in some jurisdictions, adjudicated delinquentfound not guilty by reason of insanity[1] or found not criminally responsible [2] under one of the marylqnd offenses requiring registration. In the US Federal system, persons registered are put into a tier program based on their offense of conviction.

Risk based systems have been proposed but not maryland as of print. In the United States, the vast majority of the states are applying offense-based registries, leaving the actual risk level of the offender and severity of the offense uncertain.

The few U. Studies have shown that actuarial risk assessment instruments [3] consistently outperform the offense-based system mandated by federal law. Authorized police use ANCOR to monitor persons convicted of child sex offences and other specified offences once they have served their sentence. On 1 March offneders, there were 12, registered offenders across Australia. Sincethe Province of Ontario operates its own sex offender femalf concurrently with the federal i.

Unlike the federal registry which has an opt-out provision if an offender can convince a judge they are not a threat, the Ontario registry has no such provision. As a result, individuals who have been convicted of a designated offence at any time afterand relocate to Ontario, are obligated to register for a period of at least 10 years.

The registration period begins on the day the ex-offender relocates to Ontario. India began its sex martland registry in September The registry is administered by the National Crime Records Bureau. They must also notify the Garda of any changes to this information or if they intend to stay somewhere other than their registered address for more than 7 days including if they are traveling abroad.

Mrayland are subject to these female requirements for varying durations, based on a sliding scale of the severity of the sentence they received. This scale is as follows:. The New Zealand Government has plans to introduce a sex offenders register maryland the end of It will be managed by the New Zealand Police im information will be offendes between the Police, Child, Youth and Familythe Department of Correctionsthe Ministry of Social Developmentand the Department of Building and Housing —government agencies which deal with child safety.

Like the Australian and British registers, the New Zealand sex offenders register will not be accessible to the general public but only offenderz officials with security clearance. It will also include individuals who have been granted name suppression. This proposed register has received support from both the Fifth National Government and the opposition Labour Party.

However political lobby group the Sensible Sentencing Trust has criticised the proposed register for its lack offenderd public access. On 4 Augustthe New Zealand Cabinet formally approved the sex of a sex offenders register. The sex offenders' register is expected to be operational by once enabling legislation is passed and changes are made to the Marylnad Act to enable information sharing.

Only Police and Corrections personnel monitoring convicted child sex offenders have access naryland the database. It records the details of anyone convicted of a sexual offence against a child or a mentally disabled person. The public does not have access to the registry; it is available to employers of people who work with children or mentally disabled people, to authorities responsible for licensing institutions that care for children or maryland disabled people, and to those responsible maryland approving foster care and adoptions.

People listed on the marylane are prohibited from working with children or mentally disabled people, from managing institutions that care for children or mentally disabled people, and from being foster parents or adoptive parents. This Sex Offenders Registry is only accessible to the Police Service and other branches of government. There are several gaps in this policy noted by members of the Un Committee against Sex Crimes, offendes notably that the registry only deals with offenses committed within mryland Jurisdiction of Trinidad and Tobago.

Persons who are registered Female Offenders from other jurisdictions are not registered when they immigrate or are deported to Trinidad and Tobago.

Section 48 of the amendment provides for public access to an online sex offenders registry, the court under section 49 4 c may make an order providing for a sex offender to feamle published on the website established in Section Trinidad and Tobago is now the smallest country in the world to adopt any form of Public Sex Offender Registration law.

In the United Kingdom, the Violent and Sex Offender Register ViSOR is a database of maryalnd of those required to register with the Police under the Sexual Offences Actthose jailed ffmale more than 12 months for violent offences, and unconvicted people thought to be at risk of offending.

Sex offender registries in the United States consist of federal and state level systems designed to collect information of convicted maryand offenders for law enforcement and public notification purposes.

All 50 states and District of Columbia maintain registries that are open to public via sex offender registration websites, although some registered sex offenders are visible to law enforcement only. Information pertaining to names, addresses, physical description and vehicles are made public via official websites.

In addition, registrants are often subject to restrictions that bar loitering, working or living within exclusion zones that sometimes cover entire cities and have forced registrants into encampments, such as the Julia Tuttle Causeway sex offender mayrland. Anthropology professor Roger Lancaster has called the restrictions "tantamount to practices of banishment" that he deems disproportional, noting that registries include not just the "worst of the worst", but also "adults who supplied pornography to teenage minors; young schoolteachers who foolishly fell in love with one of their students; men who urinated in public, or were caught having sex in remote areas of public parks after dark.

Depending on jurisdiction, offenses requiring registration range in their severity from public urination or children and teenagers experimenting with their peers, to violent predatory sexual offenses. In some states non-sexual offenses such as unlawful imprisonment may require sex offender registration. States apply differing sets of criteria dictating which offenders are made visible to public.

Some states scientifically evaluate the future risk of the offender and hide low-risk offenders from public. In other states, offenders are categorized according to the tier level related to statute of conviction. Some states exclude low tier offenders from public registries while in others, all offenders are publicly listed.

A majority of states apply systems based on conviction marylanf maryland, where sex offender registration is mandatory if person pleads or is found guilty of violating any of the listed offenses.

Instead, registration is a mandatory collateral consequence of criminal sex. Civil right groups, [6] [7] law reform activists, [13] [42] [43] academics, [44] [45] some child safety advocates, [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [46] politicians [47] and law enforcement officials [48] think that current laws often target the wrong people, swaying attention away from high-risk sex offenders, while severely impacting lives of all registrants, [49] [50] [51] [52] and their families, [53] [54] attempting to re-integrate to society.

The Supreme Court of the United States has upheld sex offender registration laws twice, fe,ale two respects. Several challenges to some parts of state level sex offender laws have succeeded, however. Sex offender registration has been applied to crimes other than rape, child molestation, and child pornography offenses and is sometimes offedners to certain non-sexual offenses.

In Connecticut, those with state convictions for certain misdemeanors have to register, including: Public Indecencyin violation of C.

In New York and various other states, crimes that society does not necessarily view as sexual in nature are also considered to be registerable sex offenses, such as kidnapping, " sexual misconduct offenders, unlawful imprisonment, and in some cases "sexually motivated offenses" such as assault, burglary, etc.

In New York specifically, kidnapping and unlawful imprisonment are registerable offenses only if mmaryland victim is under 17 and the offender is not a parent of the victim. In Kentucky, all sex offenders who move into the state and are required to sex in their previous home states are required to register with Kentucky for life, even if they were not required to register for life in their fwmale residence.

A few states have also created separate online registries for crimes other than sex offenses. Montana, for example, has a publicly accessible violent offender registry that includes offebders such as aggravated assault, robbery, assaulting a police officer, both deliberate and non-deliberate homicide and a third conviction for domestic violence.

Kansas has fsmale female registries of people convicted of both serious drug offenses and people sed of crimes involving a weapon. Indiana, Illinois, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Montana all have publicly accessible registries for those convicted of murder.

Florida requires all felons, regardless of the crime, to register with law enforcement for 5 years after release, although the Florida felon registry is sex available to the general public. If a felon in Florida is convicted of enough non-sexual felonies in efmale female period of time, however, they are required to register for the rest of their life on a "Habitual Offender" registry that is available to the general public. Ohio has a publicly accessible registry for people convicted five or more times of drunken driving.

Ina murder registry was proposed in Rhode Island and an animal abuser registry was proposed in Pennsylvania. A bill to create a publicly accessible registry for domestic violence offenders passed the Texas House of Representatives inbut was not voted on in the Texas Senate. Currently, only the United States allows, and more often than marryland requires public disclosure of offender information, regardless of individual risk. Other countries inn not make sex offender information public, unless the marjland assessment has been conducted and the offender has been determined to mayrland a high risk of re-offending.

In some localities in the United States, the lists female all sex offenders are made available to the public: for example, female the newspapers, community notification, or the Internet. Iin, in other localities, the complete female are not available to the general public but are known to the police. In the United States offenders are often classified in three categories: Level Tier I, Level II, and Level III offenders, information is usually accessible related to that level information being more accessible to the public for marykand level offenders.

In some US jurisdictions, the level of offender femlae reflecting the evaluated recidivism risk of the maryland offender, while in others, the level is designated merely by cemale virtue of conviction, without assessing offenders risk level posed by offenders offender. In general, in states applying risk-based registry schemes, low-risk Tier I offenders are often excluded from sex public disclosure.

In some states only the highest risk Tier III offenders are subject to public disclosure, while some states also include moderate-risk Tier II maryland in public websites. Some states have disclosed some of Tier I offenders, [59] while in some states all Tier I offenders are marryland from public disclosure. Thus, identical offenses committed in different states could produce very different outcomes in terms of public disclosure and registration period.

Offense classified as Tier I offense in one state with no public disclosure, might be classified as Tier II or Tier III offense in another, leading to considerably longer registration period and public disclosure. These disparities in state legislation have caused unexpected problems to some registrants when moving from state to another, finding themselves subject to sex disclosure on their destination state's sex offender website, and longer registration periods sometimes for lifeeven though they originally were excluded from public registry and ofenders offenders register fdmale a shorter period.

Some sex appear to apply "catch-all" statutes for former registrants moving into their jurisdiction, requiring registration and public posting of information, even when the person has completed their original registration period. At least one state Illinois reclassifies all registrants moving in the state into the highest possible tier Sexual Predatorregardless of the original tier of the person, leading to a lifetime registration requirement and being publicly labelled as a "Sexual Predator".

Determining the tier level and whether or not a person would offenders subject to public disclosure, when relocating to another state, can be close to impossible without consulting an attorney or officials responsible offemders managing registration in the destination state, due to constantly changing laws and vagueness in some female legislative language.

While these disparities in level of public disclosure among different states might cause unexpected offenders after registration, they have also caused some registrants to move into locations where public disclosure of lower level offenders is not permitted, in order to avoid public persecution and other adverse effects of public disclosure they were experiencing in their original margland.

Sex offenders on parole or probation are offenders subject to the same restrictions as other parolees and probationers. Sex offenders who have completed probation or parole may also be subject to restrictions above and beyond those of most felons.

In some jurisdictions, they marykand live within a certain distance of places children or families gather. Such places are usually schools, worship centers, and parks, but could also include public venues stadiumsairports, apartments, malls, major retail stores, college campuses, and certain neighborhoods unless for femsle business.

In some states, they may also be barred from voting after a sentence has been completed and, at the federal marylamd, barred from owning firearms, like all felons. Some states have Civic Confinement laws, which allow very-high-risk sex offenders to be placed in ofenders facilities, "in many ways like prisons", where they are supposed to be offered treatment and regularly reevaluated for maryland release.

In practice, most states with Civil Commitment centers rarely release anyone. Texas has not released anyone in the 15 years since the program esx started. The state of Missouri now restricts the activities of registered sex offenders on Halloweenrequiring them to offenders Halloween-related contact with children and remain at their registered home address from 5 p. Regardless of whether they are at work, offenders must extinguish all outside residential lighting and post a sign stating, "No candy or treats at this residence - marylanv offender at this residence".

In the United Kingdom, anyone convicted of any criminal offense cannot work in the legal, medical, teaching, or nursing professions. Facebook and Instagram prohibit any convicted sex offender from accessing or contributing to their websites.

Some states have Civic Confinement laws, which allow very-high-risk sex offenders to be placed in secure facilities, "in many ways like prisons", where they are supposed to be offered treatment and regularly reevaluated for possible release. In practice, most states with Civil Commitment centers rarely release anyone. Texas has not released anyone in the 15 years since the program was started. The state of Missouri now restricts the activities of registered sex offenders on Halloween , requiring them to avoid Halloween-related contact with children and remain at their registered home address from 5 p.

Regardless of whether they are at work, offenders must extinguish all outside residential lighting and post a sign stating, "No candy or treats at this residence - sex offender at this residence". In the United Kingdom, anyone convicted of any criminal offense cannot work in the legal, medical, teaching, or nursing professions. Facebook and Instagram prohibit any convicted sex offender from accessing or contributing to their websites.

The vast majority of sexual offense victims are known to the offender—including friends, family, or other trusted adults such as teachers. This is contrary to media depictions of stranger assaults or child molesters who kidnap children unknown to them.

According to ATSA , only in the states that utilize empirically derived risk assessment procedures and publicly identify only high risk offenders, has community notification demonstrated some effectiveness.

S states do not utilize risk assessment tools when determining ones inclusion on the registry, although studies have shown that actuarial risk assessment instruments, which are created by putting together risk factors found by research to correlate with re-offending, consistently outperform the offense based systems. Studies almost always show that residency restrictions increase offender's recidivism rates by increasing offender homelessness and increasing instability in a sex offender's life.

According to a Department of Justice study, 5. Despite the public perception of sex offenders as having high recidivism, sex offenders had the second lowest recidivism rate, after only murderers, but sex offenders were about four times more likely than non-sex offenders to be arrested for a sexual offense after their discharge from prison. In the late s, a study showed that Indiana sex offenders have recidivism of about 1.

A study by professors from Columbia University and the University of Michigan found that having police-only sex offender registries e.

Some sex offenders may come to view their central identity as being that of a sex offender due to the registry, and the more a sex offender views themselves as being a criminal the more likely they are to reoffend. However, the study also found that making sex offender registration publicly available may deter some potential first time sex offenders from committing an offense that would get them on the registry in the first place. The thought of getting on the sex offender registry may or may not deter non-sex offenders from committing sex crimes.

A study found no evidence that New York's registry or notification laws reduced sexual offenses by rapists, child molesters, sexual recidivists, or first-time sex offenders. A study by University of Chicago graduate student Amanda Agan compared sex offender recidivism rates in states where sex offenders were required to register in with states where they were not required to register in The results of the study were that sex offender recidivism was, in fact, slightly lower in states where sex offenders were not required to register.

This made Agan question whether creating sex offender registries was a rational idea. The study also showed that blocks in Washington DC where sex offenders lived did not have higher molestation rates than blocks where sex offenders did not live.

In at least two instances, convicted sex offenders were murdered after their information was made available over the Internet. For example, residency restrictions will make it harder for a sex offender's spouse and children, not just a sex offender themselves, to find housing. Residency restrictions may even cause a sex offender's family to be homeless. Sex offenders' spouses and children can also face harassment and financial hardship as a result of their loved one's sex offender status.

More than half of the children of sex offenders say that fellow students treat them worse due to a parent's RSO status. The Human Rights Watch organization criticized these laws in a page report published in , [5] and in another report in People who are registered in offender databases are usually required to notify the government when they change their place of residence. The state of Washington is among those that have special provisions in their registration code covering homeless offenders, but not all states have such provisions.

A November Maryland Court of Appeals ruling exempts homeless persons from that state's registration requirements, which has prompted a drive to compose new laws covering this contingency.

News reports in revealed that some registered sex offenders were living outside or under the Julia Tuttle Causeway in Miami, Florida because Miami-Dade County ordinances, which are more restrictive than Florida's state laws, made it virtually impossible for them to find housing. However, many have lapsed back into homelessness, sleeping alongside railroad tracks. As of Suffolk County, New York , which had imposed onerous restrictions on sex offenders exceeding those required by New York state law, was faced with a situation where 40 sex offenders were living in two cramped trailers located in isolated locations.

The question of how to appropriately deal with underage sex assault perpetrators has led to some of the most emotional appeals against sex offender registries. In , an Associated Press investigation found that for every adult-on-child offence, there are seven child-on-child sex offences. These crimes are rarely reported in the media or prosecuted.

In some U. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Sex offender registries in the United States. Law portal. Lynn University. Retrieved 24 November Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 21 February American Civil Liberties Union. Retrieved 14 November Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers.

National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers. The New York Times. Retrieved 17 November Orlando Sentinel. Archived from the original on 13 November Retrieved 13 November The Sacramento Bee. Archived from the original on 14 October MPR news. Retrieved 16 November New York: Springer Publishing Company. Archived from the original on 10 July The Slate. Archived from the original on 24 July Retrieved 31 October The Indian Express. Retrieved 21 September Retrieved 27 April New Zealand Herald.

The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 15 November One News. Department of Corrections. Archived from the original on 24 January Retrieved 26 April New Zealand Police.

Department of Justice and Constitutional Development. Retrieved 13 July St Lucia News Online. Retrieved 27 October National Center for Missing and Exploited Children. Retrieved 21 August The Orange County Register.

Tampa Bay Times. Think Progress. Toledo News. Archived from the original on 2 April Boston Review. The Weekly Standard.

Retrieved 1 September Klaas Kids Foundation. Criminal Justice and Behavior. Archived from the original PDF on 2 September Policy-makers believe sex offender laws are too broad. The laws extend to nonviolent offenses, low-risk offenders, and thus dilute the law enforcement potency of sex offender registries.

Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice. July The Washington Post. Al Jazeera America. Toledo News Now. Kentucky State Police. Retrieved 14 March Illinois sex offender information. Portland Tribune. Center For Sex Offender Management. August Retrieved 20 May Retrieved 20 November Retrieved 19 April Indiana Department of Correction.

The state of Missouri now restricts the activities of registered sex offenders on Halloween , requiring them to avoid Halloween-related contact with children and remain at their registered home address from 5 p. Regardless of whether they are at work, offenders must extinguish all outside residential lighting and post a sign stating, "No candy or treats at this residence - sex offender at this residence".

In the United Kingdom, anyone convicted of any criminal offense cannot work in the legal, medical, teaching, or nursing professions.

Facebook and Instagram prohibit any convicted sex offender from accessing or contributing to their websites. The vast majority of sexual offense victims are known to the offender—including friends, family, or other trusted adults such as teachers.

This is contrary to media depictions of stranger assaults or child molesters who kidnap children unknown to them. According to ATSA , only in the states that utilize empirically derived risk assessment procedures and publicly identify only high risk offenders, has community notification demonstrated some effectiveness.

S states do not utilize risk assessment tools when determining ones inclusion on the registry, although studies have shown that actuarial risk assessment instruments, which are created by putting together risk factors found by research to correlate with re-offending, consistently outperform the offense based systems.

Studies almost always show that residency restrictions increase offender's recidivism rates by increasing offender homelessness and increasing instability in a sex offender's life.

According to a Department of Justice study, 5. Despite the public perception of sex offenders as having high recidivism, sex offenders had the second lowest recidivism rate, after only murderers, but sex offenders were about four times more likely than non-sex offenders to be arrested for a sexual offense after their discharge from prison.

In the late s, a study showed that Indiana sex offenders have recidivism of about 1. A study by professors from Columbia University and the University of Michigan found that having police-only sex offender registries e. Some sex offenders may come to view their central identity as being that of a sex offender due to the registry, and the more a sex offender views themselves as being a criminal the more likely they are to reoffend.

However, the study also found that making sex offender registration publicly available may deter some potential first time sex offenders from committing an offense that would get them on the registry in the first place. The thought of getting on the sex offender registry may or may not deter non-sex offenders from committing sex crimes.

A study found no evidence that New York's registry or notification laws reduced sexual offenses by rapists, child molesters, sexual recidivists, or first-time sex offenders. A study by University of Chicago graduate student Amanda Agan compared sex offender recidivism rates in states where sex offenders were required to register in with states where they were not required to register in The results of the study were that sex offender recidivism was, in fact, slightly lower in states where sex offenders were not required to register.

This made Agan question whether creating sex offender registries was a rational idea. The study also showed that blocks in Washington DC where sex offenders lived did not have higher molestation rates than blocks where sex offenders did not live. In at least two instances, convicted sex offenders were murdered after their information was made available over the Internet.

For example, residency restrictions will make it harder for a sex offender's spouse and children, not just a sex offender themselves, to find housing.

Residency restrictions may even cause a sex offender's family to be homeless. Sex offenders' spouses and children can also face harassment and financial hardship as a result of their loved one's sex offender status. More than half of the children of sex offenders say that fellow students treat them worse due to a parent's RSO status.

The Human Rights Watch organization criticized these laws in a page report published in , [5] and in another report in People who are registered in offender databases are usually required to notify the government when they change their place of residence. The state of Washington is among those that have special provisions in their registration code covering homeless offenders, but not all states have such provisions. A November Maryland Court of Appeals ruling exempts homeless persons from that state's registration requirements, which has prompted a drive to compose new laws covering this contingency.

News reports in revealed that some registered sex offenders were living outside or under the Julia Tuttle Causeway in Miami, Florida because Miami-Dade County ordinances, which are more restrictive than Florida's state laws, made it virtually impossible for them to find housing. However, many have lapsed back into homelessness, sleeping alongside railroad tracks. As of Suffolk County, New York , which had imposed onerous restrictions on sex offenders exceeding those required by New York state law, was faced with a situation where 40 sex offenders were living in two cramped trailers located in isolated locations.

The question of how to appropriately deal with underage sex assault perpetrators has led to some of the most emotional appeals against sex offender registries. In , an Associated Press investigation found that for every adult-on-child offence, there are seven child-on-child sex offences.

These crimes are rarely reported in the media or prosecuted. In some U. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Sex offender registries in the United States. Law portal. Lynn University. Retrieved 24 November Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 21 February American Civil Liberties Union. Retrieved 14 November Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers. National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers. The New York Times. Retrieved 17 November Orlando Sentinel.

Archived from the original on 13 November Retrieved 13 November The Sacramento Bee. Archived from the original on 14 October MPR news. Retrieved 16 November New York: Springer Publishing Company. Archived from the original on 10 July The Slate. Archived from the original on 24 July Retrieved 31 October The Indian Express.

Retrieved 21 September Retrieved 27 April New Zealand Herald. The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 15 November One News. Department of Corrections. Archived from the original on 24 January Retrieved 26 April New Zealand Police.

Department of Justice and Constitutional Development. Retrieved 13 July St Lucia News Online. Retrieved 27 October National Center for Missing and Exploited Children.

Retrieved 21 August The Orange County Register. Tampa Bay Times. Think Progress. Toledo News. Archived from the original on 2 April Boston Review. The Weekly Standard. Retrieved 1 September Klaas Kids Foundation. Criminal Justice and Behavior. Archived from the original PDF on 2 September Policy-makers believe sex offender laws are too broad. The laws extend to nonviolent offenses, low-risk offenders, and thus dilute the law enforcement potency of sex offender registries.

Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice. July The Washington Post. Al Jazeera America. Toledo News Now. Kentucky State Police. Retrieved 14 March Illinois sex offender information. Portland Tribune. Center For Sex Offender Management. August Retrieved 20 May Retrieved 20 November Retrieved 19 April Indiana Department of Correction.

Rockoff January A time-series analysis of New York state's sex offender registration and notification law". Psychology, Public Policy, and Law.